Hereford, Herefordshire Family History Guide



Parishes in Hereford

  • Hereford All Saints, Herefordshire
  • Hereford Cathedral, Herefordshire
  • Hereford St John the Baptist, Herefordshire
  • Hereford St Martin, Herefordshire
  • Hereford St Nicholas, Herefordshire
  • Hereford St Owen, Herefordshire
  • Hereford St Peter, Herefordshire
  • Hereford the Vineyard, Herefordshire

 

 

Historical Descriptions

The Imperial Gazetteer of England & Wales 1870

HEREFORD, a city, a sub-district, and a district in Herefordshire; and a diocese partly also in Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Salop, Radnor, and Montgomery. The city stands on the river Wye, in a fine spacious valley, 29¾ miles SW by W of Worcester, 30¼ NW by W of Gloucester, 51 S of Shrewsbury, and 134 by road, but 144 by railway, WNW of London; and it has railway communication in five directions, toward Worcester, Gloucester, Abergavenny, Brecon, and Shrewsbury.

History.—The date of the city’s origin is matter of dispute. Some writers suppose it to have been a Roman outpost, dependent on the large station of Magna Castra, about 4 miles distant; others suppose it to have been founded by the Britons, soon after Magna Castra was deserted by the Romans; others believe it to have originated in connexion with the establishment of the Saxon power; and others date it so late as the time of Edward the Elder. Early British names of it are said to have been Treffawyd and Caerffawyd, in allusion to beech trees; a later British name for it was Henfordd, signifying “the old ford;” and the present name of it was originally Herefordd, signifying “the ford of the army” Most writers represent the place as of great importance at the rise of the Mercian kingdom; as having early become the capital of that kingdom; and as having, in 680, been the meeting place of a synod for re-adjusting the episcopal government of Mercia. Walls were built around it, and a castle was erected at it, about 905, by Ethelfleda; and these were strengthened or rebuilt, about 939, by Athelstane. The city then began to overawe the Welsh, and to hold them to tribute; but, in 1055, it was captured, sacked, fired, and reduced almost to total ruin, by Llewelyn ap Giyfydd, Prince of Wales. Its walls were rebuilt, and its castle was re-erected or, as some say, built for the first time by Harold. The castle was given, by William the Conqueror, to the Fitz-Osbornes; was seized, against King Stephen, by William Talbot; and was recovered, in 1141, by Stephen. The city was captured, in 1263, by the Earl of Leicester and the rebellions barons; was the place of the forcible detention by them of Prince Edward, afterwards Edward I., till his escape from it in 1265; and was the scene of the execution of Edward II.’s favourite Despenser, in 1322, and of Edward II.’s own deposition in 1326. It was the scene also after the battle of Mortimer’s Cross. It surrendered to the parliamentarian forces under Sir William Waller, in 1643; was soon retaken by the royalists; was besieged, in 1645, by the Scots, under the Earl of Leven; was relieved by the approach of the king, after his defeat at Naseby; and was one of the last places which surrendered finally to the parliament. Charles II., on coming to the throne, granted it the motto “Invictæ Fidelitatis Præminm.” It gives the title of Viscount to the Devereuxs: and numbers, among its distinguished natives or residents, Roger of Hereford, Lady M. Deering, Nell Gwynne, General Stringer, Captain Cornewall, David Garrick, Cardinal Wolsey, Polydore Virgil, Phillips the poet, Havard the song writer, and Wathen the pedestrian.

Streets and Environs.—The city occupies a gentle eminence; and, though environed by low lands, is sufficiently elevated to be free from damp or fog. The walls which surrounded it had a circuit of about 2,350 yards, and were aided, in their defence of it, by the Wye and a little brook. Fifteen towers projected from them, embattled, and with cruciform embrazures, in the sides and centre, for discharge of arrows, and for observation. The gates were six in number, Eigne gate on the W, Widemarsh gate on the N, Bishop’s gate on the NE, St. Andrew’s gate or St. Owen’s gate on the SE, Wyebridge gate at the S end of the bridge, and Friar’s gate on the SW. The castle stood contiguous to the Wye, a little below the bridge; and was described by Leland as having been “one of the largest, fairest, and strongest castles in England, “, “strongly ditched where not defended by the river., the walls of it high and strong and full of great towers.” Some portions of the city walls, in fair preservation, still exist; but the six gates and all the castle have utterly disappeared. The castle green, or area of the outer ward, overhanging the river, is now surrounded by an elevated and delightful public walk, which runs along the site of the castle walls, and commands beautiful and extensive views of the surrounding country. The site of the castle’s lower keep also is now occupied by another walk, still more elevated, and forming a kind of semicircle. The site of the principal keep still bears the name of Castle hill . The city has undergone great improvement since the commencement of the present century; and now, on the whole, presents a pleasing, wellbuilt, modern appearance; yet still contains a goodly number of old houses. The main streets are broad and well paved, and have been decorated with many tasteful shops and residences; and numerous streets of an inferior description diverge from the main ones. A curious ancient house, the Butchers’ hall, with a large amount of carving, is in St. Peter’s street; another curious house of the 17th century, is in East street; the birthplace of Nell Gwynne was in Gwynne street; and that of David Garrick was in a small street diverging from Widemarsh street. The environs are noted for luxuriant fields, charming orchards, delicious gardens, and extensive pasture lands; they are adorned with fine mansions, as Belmont, Holm-Lacy, Rotherwas, Sufton, and others; and they stretch away, on all sides, over the fertile valley, to picturesque ranges of hills, most of which are wooded to the summits. Read More

Leonard’s Gazetteer of England and Wales 1850

Hereford (the County town), 135 m. W.N.W. London. Mrkt. Wed. Fri. and Sat. P. 10,921

Source: Leonard’s Gazetteer of England and Wales; Second Edition; C. W. Leonard, London; 1850.

Bankrupts

Below is a list of people that were declared bankrupt between 1820 and 1843 extracted from The Bankrupt Directory; George Elwick; London; Simpkin, Marshall and Co.; 1843.

Addiis Thomas, Hereford, builder, Dec. 29, 1829.

Bridgman Joseph, St. Peter, Hereford, corn dealer, May 3, 1825.

Brooks Thomas, Hereford, hotel keeper, May 18. 1832.

Burraston Joseph, Hereford, coal merchant, Nov. 11, 1823.

Cooke William, Hereford, coal merchant, April 15, 1834.

Cooke William, Hereford, timber merchant, May 8, 1838.

Davies James, Hereford, victualler, Dec. 9, 1823.

Davies James, Hereford, innkeeper, Oct. 24, 1826.

Davies John, Hereford, cabinet maker and grocer, Feb. 13, 1821.

Dillon John, Hereford, brazier, Nov. 24, 1826.

Dillon John, Hereford, brazier, July 10, 1840.

Garrett John, sen.; & John Garrett, jun.; Hereford, bankers, Dec. 21, 1827.

George James, Hereford, timber merchant, Nov. 23, 1832.

Gibbins John William, Hereford, perfumer and jeweller, May 21, 1833.

Hankins Edward, Hereford, dealer and chapman, Nov. 15, 1823.

Havard Francis, Hereford, wine and spirit merchant, Aug. 13, 1822.

Hewer Francis, Hereford, innkeeper, Aug. 18, 1840.

Hughes Jeremiah, Hereford, baker and confectioner, May 1, 1829.

Lane Thomas, Hereford, seedsman and china dealer, Dec. 19, 1834.

Lloyd William, Hereford, wine merchant, May 23, 1826.

Lloyd William, Hereford, wine merchant, April 27, 1841.

Lye John Bleek, Hereford, dealer in cattle, banker & maltster, Dec. 1, 1840.

Mallitt Robert, Hereford, draper and tailor, July 24, 1832.

Mason Francis, Hereford. boot and shoe maker, April 23, 1830.

Miles William, Hereford, mercer, Oct. 10,­ 1825.

Minton Robert, Hereford, tailor and draper, Oct. 5, 1830.

Morgan Thomas, Eign, Herefordshire, timber merchant, Nov. 7, 18214.

Parker Wm. Hen., jun.; & John Parker; Hereford, booksellers, Feb. 26, 1828.

Patrick Daniel, Hereford, draper and mercer, Oct. 31, 1828.

Pitts James, Hereford, timber dealer and wheelwright, Feb. 6, 1821.

Price Isaac Bate, Hereford, timber merchant, Feb. 13, 1827.

Price Thomas, Hereford, victualler, Oct. 8, 1833.

Rowlands John, Hereford, draper, Dec. 11, 1835.

Senior John, Hereford, cabinet maker and upholsterer, Aug. 25, 1837.

Skyrme Amos Jones, Hereford, tanner, March 26, 1830.

Tipton Thomas, Hereford, licensed victualler, Dec. 2, 1831.

Trehern Thomas, Hereford, carpenter and builder. Nov. 28, 1826.

Trehern Zachariah; & Geo. Stevens; Hereford, timber merchs., Oct. 13, 1826.

Wainwright Benjamin, Hereford, maltster, Nov. 19, 1822.

Wase Benjamin, Hereford, brewer, Feb. 12, 1841.

Watkins Thomas William Rickards, Hereford, scrivener, Jan. 14, 1826.

Wheeler Thomas, Hereford, corn dealer and mealman, Oct. 23, 1829.

Woakes James, Hereford, upholsterer and cabinet maker, ­April 30, 1822.

Directories

Hereford Trades and Professions Cassey Directory of Herefordshire 1858

Photographs